Thin ultralight, ultra-thin folding mobile phones, known as ’21 century space elevator …… magical material ‘graphene with its magical properties carrying countless people imagine. The world’s major countries have attached great importance to the development of graphene-related industries, and expect it to bring the end of 2014, Spain’s first graphene companies developed a polymeric material graphene battery with the University of Cordoba, whose storage capacity is huge market market value 3 times the best products, with this battery provides power to the electric vehicle can travel up to 1,000 kilometers, while the charging time of less than 8 minutes. The company has conducted four joint test with the German car company in two, planned in 2015, the battery was put into production.
October 2014, MIT researchers found crumpled graphene paper can be used to prepare easily bent, folded or stretched to 800% of its original size supercapacitors, and crumpled – calm its performance of 1000 It does not occur significantly reduced.
Two British scientists use ‘tape’ from the graphite surface ‘tear’ out of the single substance, as they won the Nobel Prize laureate discoverer of graphene might never have expected such a rapid development of its breakthrough. In 2004, the University of Manchester physicists Andre. Heim and Constantine. Novoselov simple ‘mechanical peeling method’, use ‘tape’ from the graphite surface ‘tear’ the single layer of graphite – graphene. Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded in 2010 the two physicists, in recognition of their research on graphene.
Graphene is a single atomic layer of the two-dimensional crystalline material, but also the most simple structure of carbon materials. Common graphite material can be viewed by the graphene layers stacked together, so graphene also be regarded as ‘graphene’. Known as the ’21 century magical material ‘graphene is now known in the world’s thinnest, toughest, best conductivity at room temperature and has a strong nanomaterials flexibility: it can be thinned to a thickness of only carbon atoms, 1 mm thick graphite sheet can be stripped out of three million layers of graphene; it is very hard, the intensity 200 times higher than steel; at room temperature, the lowest resistivity material is silver, while graphene resistivity than silver still small; it is transparent and airtight …… various characteristics make graphene for future applications in the touch screen, sensors, batteries and many other areas full of imagination.
Scientists expected in the next 5-10 years, graphene research will be of great development, the first graphene touch screen will be available in three to five years, graphene electronic paper samples can be successfully developed in 2015, the ultra-thin ultralight, ultrathin foldable mobile phones, high-strength aerospace materials, and even more imaginative space elevators and other equipment will lead to a revolutionary breakthrough in the future in the relevant fields, and promote the value of trillions of dollars of new industrial chain.
Currently, the graphene material graphite market price is about 3000 yuan / ton, while refined into graphene, the graphene market price up to 100 yuan / ton. With mass production and large-size problem gradually break, the pace of industrialization of graphene is accelerating research investment related institutions at home and abroad are on the rise, market attention growing.
The rapid development of basic and applied research in parallel
China is currently one of the countries of graphene research and application development is most active. Data show that in all countries, graphene patent China filed the largest number has been over 2200, accounting for the world’s 1/3. 2013 the Ministry issued a “new materials industry ‘second five’ development plan” in the forefront of new materials now contains graphene. National Natural Science Foundation has funded a large number of basic research projects related to graphene, National Science and Technology major projects, the State 973 Program also deployed a number of major projects. Governments at all levels graphene showed great interest, and has formed a government, research institutions, research and development and application of enterprise collaborative innovation officer Cooperative docking mechanism. October 2011, Changzhou, Jiangsu Jiangnan graphene Institute was established as the country’s first graphene-based industrial base materials and applications.
China is now at the forefront of graphene industrialization, the emergence of a large number of graphene related businesses, industry direction focused on the preparation and storage, touch screen and coating, and several other applications of graphene. Scientists have also developed a series of graphene-based energy storage materials, such as graphene-based high density of the porous carbon material, to promote the practical application of graphene paves the way. July 2013, China graphene industry technology innovation strategic alliance established in Beijing. Contribute to the establishment of the Union industry integration and coordination of resources, the establishment of resource sharing mechanism downstream, research information, intellectual property rights, enhance the overall level of innovation and competitiveness graphene industry chain.
Invested heavily to ensure that the United Kingdom can do Chuming Tang
Britain is graphene ‘birthplace’, but related R & D and industrialization has lagged behind China, South Korea, Japan and Singapore and other Asian countries.
To change this situation, in recent years, the British government invested heavily in research and development to accelerate the graphene. In 2011, the British government announced that invested 50 million pounds (1 pound about $ 1.52) to support graphene research, including the establishment of a total investment of 61 million pounds of the National Institutes of graphite ene; in December 2012, the British Government to allocate 21.5 million pounds to fund research applications of graphene materials; in 2013 the British Government of the United European Research and Development Foundation jointly funded the £ 61 million Institute of graphite ene establishment of the National University of Manchester, led by two Nobel Prize winners, the institute is expected to completed in early 2015. In 2014, the British government announced a joint Masdar to continue to invest 60 million pounds graphene engineering innovation center was established in the University of Manchester, as a complement to the National Institute of graphite ene accelerate graphene applied research and development, maintenance and Britain in graphene Other two-dimensional material aspects of a world leader. British Chancellor of the Exchequer Osborne said the British government would “ensure that Britain is committed to make something for the discovery in the UK ‘.
Not only that, but also the emergence of a large number of British commitment to graphene production and application of the company, such as the famous British sports Hyde company since 2013 has been introduced to add graphene tennis, Novak. Djokovic and many other tennis stars are using this racket.
The strength of scientific research to keep pace with the industry
United States of America as a technology powerhouse, research and development strength, research on graphene investment began earlier, investment is relatively large. US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency in July 2008 released a total investment of $ 22 million in carbon electronic radio frequency application project to develop ultra-high speed and ultra-low-energy applications of graphene-based RF circuits. 2006 – 2011 years, the US National Science Foundation-funded project on graphene have about 200, covering all areas of graphene research and applications. 2014, the National Natural Science Foundation of China invested $ 18 million, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research invested $ 10 million for a two-dimensional graphene and related materials to carry out basic research.
American good business environment also contributed to the large number of small enterprises in the birth of graphene, industrialization and application process is relatively fast. The United States has a strong R & D capabilities of many large companies, such as International Business Machines Corporation (IBM), Intel, Boeing put a lot of research efforts on the development of graphene. In 2012, the United States, IBM has successfully developed the first integrated circuit made by a graphene wafer, so that the electrical properties of graphene special highlights the potential applications of graphene wafer herald available to replace silicon wafers in the future. October 2014, IBM researchers found that graphene material can significantly reduce the cost of the blue LED, and this technology has the opportunity to birth frequency transistors, light detectors, biosensors, and other ‘post-silicon era’ components, for which the company invest $ 3 billion plan for the future next generation chip technology in five years.
Joint research and development, and actively seize the strategic high ground
The EU in recent years, the development of graphene also invest more. As of 2011, the EU invested a total of about 150 million euros to promote the graphene-related research and development. More than 50 existing EU companies in developing graphene research and development, industrialization and promoting applications.
In addition to academic research promoted by the government, many industrial giants such as BASF and Bayer, also invested considerable human and financial resources to strengthen the development of graphene-related applications.
In January 2013, the European Commission is one of graphene as a ‘future emerging technology flagship project’, it plans to provide 1 billion euros financed 10 years, graphene research raised to strategic level, seeks to graphene and other two dimensional material from the laboratory to the community, and promote industrial revolution and economic growth and create jobs. The project by the Swedish Chalmers University of Technology, led more than 100 research and development team composed of the EU 15 member states, including four Nobel Prize winners.
As an important member of the EU, Germany was launched in 2010 graphene priority research programs, including 38 research projects, the budget for the first three years of 10.6 million euros; in the same year the German Federal Department of Research also invested 7 million euros funded research , aimed at deepening the understanding of graphene performance and handling, lay the foundation for the new graphene-based electronics. October 2012, scientists at the University of Munich in Germany successfully made graphene photodetectors, photodetector made of graphene can very quickly photoelectric signal processing and guidance.
Emphasis on patents, government and business together to develop
Korea graphene research and industry is developing rapidly, which will not only benefit from the South Korean government in recent years, ongoing support, also benefited from the huge investment in the country’s large companies. The former Ministry of Knowledge Economy of Korea is expected between 2012 to 2018 for a total of $ 250 million in funding to graphene fields, including $ 124 million for R & D graphene, graphene applied research for commercialization of $ 126 million. 2013, the Korean Ministry of Industry and Trade announced the integration of research institutions and companies in Korea forces advance commercial development of graphene, graphene coalition includes KAIST, including 41 research institutions will be formed with six companies, cooperative research, government will invest $ 42.3 million over the next six years, we hope to create a $ 15.3 billion annual market, forming the world’s 25 leading companies. Korea focus on the protection and application of graphene patent, ranks third in the world after the US and China, far higher than other European countries.
Industry enterprise level, Samsung has invested huge R & D efforts to ensure that applied in graphene flexible display, touch screen and other areas of international chip leader, developed a 40-inch touch screen panel graphene in 2011. 2014, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology and Sungkyunkwan University jointly announced the synthesis of a maintained conductivity of graphene crystals in a larger scale, it is a can be used in flexible displays and wearable devices screen display technology. South Korean scientists announced in November last year, the latest invention of graphene super phone battery, can store the same amount of conventional battery power, but the charging time of just 16 seconds.
Government funding, many companies competing to participate
Japan, as one of the most developed carbon materials industry, from 2007 onwards to subsidize the development of graphene. For example: Japan Science and Technology Agency in 2007 on the technical development project Graphene materials and devices will be financed; METI in 2011 implemented ‘ultra low-carbon society to achieve the high mildly innovative fusion material’ projects, key support the carbon nanotubes and graphene batch synthesis.
In addition to the Japanese government-related investment, many Japanese companies such as Hitachi, Sony, Toshiba and other invested a lot of money and manpower in graphene basic research and application development, and has made significant progress. Japan’s Sony Corp. in 2012 to develop a length of 120 meters can generate graphene transparent film chemical vapor deposition techniques.